000014092 001__ 14092
000014092 037__ $$a5549
000014092 041__ $$aEnglish
000014092 100__ $$aNafees, M.
000014092 100__ $$aKhan, H.
000014092 100__ $$aJan, M. R.
000014092 245__ $$aCirculatory land tenure and its social and ecological impacts
000014092 260__ $$c2009
000014092 260__ $$b
            
000014092 490__ $$aArticle
000014092 507__ $$aMFOLL
000014092 520__ $$aThis study explores the social and ecological impacts of circulatory land tenure in the villages of Allahdand and Dheri, situated near one another in the lower Swat valley (upper part of Malakand Agency). Apart from communal hill slopes, agricultural land is divided into 3 categories: damani (rainfed), jewardara (irrigated but with no rice), and shoulgarey (irrigated, mainly used for rice). The people permanently own the rainfed land, while the irrigated land is under a tenure system known as garzinda wesh (circulatory tenure), with 10 years' tenure rotation allotted through khasanray (drawing lot). This type of land tenure system also exists partially in other villages of Upper Malakand such as Jolagaram, Khar, and Totakan. This system was introduced in the 16th century with the idea of sharing all types of land?including irrigated land, fertile land, slope land, etc?in equal shares and with the aim of enabling the landowner tribe to respond collectively if some other tribe or majority tenants tried to seize any portion of land. Due to social conflicts, this system can have negative impacts today, especially in the form of soil erosion leading to land degradation. We highlight the positive and negative environmental impacts of the system. To this purpose, a detailed survey was conducted using focus group interviews, participatory rural appraisals, mapping, and transit walks with timelines. The results show how social response to the suitability of the system for livelihoods and social integrity can vary. The impact on fuelwood consumption is negative, leading to deforestation and lack of soil conservation. Abolishment of garzinda wesh in the village is recommended.
000014092 653__ $$aagriculture
000014092 653__ $$acommunity
000014092 653__ $$acommunity based approach
000014092 653__ $$aconflict
000014092 653__ $$adeforestation
000014092 653__ $$aecology
000014092 653__ $$aenvironment
000014092 653__ $$aenvironmental management
000014092 653__ $$afarming
000014092 653__ $$afarming systems
000014092 653__ $$aHindu Kush-Himalayas
000014092 653__ $$aland rights
000014092 653__ $$aPakistan
000014092 653__ $$aparticipation
000014092 653__ $$asoil erosion
000014092 650__ $$aMountain livelihoods
000014092 650__ $$aNatural resource management
000014092 650__ $$aFarming systems
000014092 650__ $$aPolicies and governance
000014092 691__ $$aMountain livelihoods
000014092 691__ $$aNatural resource management
000014092 691__ $$aFarming systems
000014092 691__ $$aPolicies and governance
000014092 773__ $$pMountain Research and Development, Vol 29, No 1, Feb 2009: 59?66: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1659/mrd.898
000014092 8564_ $$uhttp://lib.icimod.org/record/14092/files/5549.pdf
000014092 980__ $$aARTICLE