Forestry in the princely state of Swat and Kalam (North-West Pakistan): A historical perspective on norms and practices (2008)

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Research into the present-day forest issues in NWFP has always recognised the importance of the historical past. Even today, people recall the period under the Walis as a golden age and suggest that forest-related rules be made as during the time of the Walis. However, very little was known about the details of forestry in the areas that comprised the princely State of Swat, and Kalam – both before and during the period of the Princely State of Swat. This was the point of departure for this study on the subject. Therefore, the author researched in detail the period from the sixteenth century up to 1947 and gave an overview of the period from 1947-1969. This study was published by the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research North-South (NCCR N-S) as IP 6 Working Paper No. 6, in 2005. As the historical dimension is crucial to the understanding of present-day forestry, a study of forestry issues in the areas of Swat State, and Kalam from 1947 up to the present day was urgently required as well, hence the present Follow-up Study. The objective of the present Follow-up Study is to cover in detail the Walis period from 1947 till 1969 and also the post-State period; and to show how forests have been managed and used in the Swat State areas and Kalam during the period 1947-2005. This includes more precisely the following points:
- How are the forests used in the study area and for what?
- What kind of rules and regulations did the Walis impose during the period 1947-1969?
- Were these rules and regulations followed in actual practice?
- What was the relationship between the Walis’ rules and regulations regarding forests and the traditional rules and regulations (riwaj)?
- What was the relationship between the Wali and the new Pakistan administration, especially the Forest Department?
- How was the forest service in Swat State organised? How were the rules and regulations enforced?
- How did procedures change after the merger of Swat State?
- What were the consequences of the merger of Swat State on forestry in the study area?
- How did the Pakistan State adjust the rules and regulations to the new situation?
- What are the links between the introduction of Sharia laws in 1990s in the study area and forestry?
- What is the legal situation of forestry today in the study area? The present study covers the area of the former Swat State, and Kalam which was directly controlled by the Walis from 14-15 August 1947 until 12 February 1954; and from 12 February 1954 onwards by the Last Wali, as Administrator on behalf of the Government of Pakistan.
Language: English
Imprint: NCCR: WP2/IP6 Working Paper No. 9 (2008): http://www.nccr-pakistan.org/publications_pdf/Forests/SultaniRome_WP9.pdf 2008
Series: Report,
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