Many of the socio-economic, cultural and political problems the South Asian Region, including SAARC countries, is currently facing emanate from the ecological crises looming large on the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) Region. Extending into the boundaries of eight Asian countries ? viz., Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar ? the mountain chain of the Hindu Kush-Himalayas contributes significantly to the maintenance of water bodies and building up an environment conducive to the food production systems. Out of the six SAARC countries, four (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and India) are wholly or partially nestled in the Himalayan Region. There is sizeable area under mountains in Maldives and Sri Lanka also and hence these countries share common problems with the others. A safe environment, drinking water supplies and sustenance of food flows from the land are essential ingredients for development and sustainability of a Region. And these essential conditions are met or can be met by the largest components of the nature on land, the rangeland ecosystems.