000011485 001__ 11485
000011485 037__ $$a818
000011485 041__ $$aEnglish
000011485 100__ $$aJoshi, S. R.
000011485 100__ $$aAhmad, F.
000011485 100__ $$aGurung, M. B.
000011485 100__ $$aPartap, U.
000011485 245__ $$aIndigenous honeybees: Allies for mountain farmers
000011485 260__ $$c2004
000011485 260__ $$b
000011485 490__ $$aArticle
000011485 507__ $$aMFOLL, Min Bahadur Gurung, ICIMOD staff, Uma Pratap, icimodbees
000011485 507__ $$aHICAP
000011485 511__ $$aadaptarticle
000011485 520__ $$aIn mountain agriculture, field crops, fruits, vegetables, livestock and honeybees combine to provide self-sufficiency for farmers. Together, they help provide the resilience necessary to live with the hardships and extremes of mountain environments. Indigenous honeybees play an important role in mountain ecosystems. They are the natural pollinators for a wide variety of mountain crops as well as indigenous plants. While visiting flowers to collect nectar, the bees transfer pollen from one flower to another. Three quarters of the world's cultivated crops are pollinated by different species of bees, and honeybees are the most effective and reliable pollinators. They also play an often unrecognized role in maintaining the vegetation cover: more pollination means more seed, more young plants and eventually more biomass, providing food and habitats for birds, insects and other animals. There are very few areas in the world where indigenous species of honeybees other than Apis mellifera still exist, and even fewer where the indigenous honeybees can be kept in hives and managed by farmers.  In the Hindu Kush Himalayas, indigenous honeybees include Apis dorsata, Apis florea, Apis laboriosa (bees whose products can be collected but which cannot be kept in hives) and Apis cerana. In addition to their importance for pollination, these bees contribute directly to the livelihoods of mountain people by providing honey and other bee products. Apis cerana, the Asian hive bee, is particularly important to mountain farmers as a source of cash income. This species is well suited both to the climatic conditions in the region and to the farming practices that are typical of these marginal, mountainous areas. It has the ideal characteristics to ensure the pollination of mountain crops, having adapted its foraging patterns to suit the changing flowering and nectar production rhythms that result from the uncertain and variable climatic conditions in mountain areas. It can work under cool conditions up to an altitude of 3000 metres and is ideally suited as a pollinator of early flowering crops like almonds, peaches and plums. Kept in hives in the backyards, these bees pollinate kitchen garden crops, usually the main source of vegetables. The indigenous bee offers a further advantage in that it keeps going even under adverse conditions; if the situation becomes really difficult the colonies may migrate temporarily, but the bees come back to their hives when conditions allow them to do so.
000011485 653__ $$aAfghanistan
000011485 653__ $$abiodiversity
000011485 653__ $$aHindu Kush-Himalayas
000011485 653__ $$aIndia
000011485 653__ $$aNepal
000011485 650__ $$aBiodiversity
000011485 691__ $$aBiodiversity
000011485 773__ $$pLeisa Magazine: December 2004
000011485 8564_ $$uhttp://lib.icimod.org/record/11485/files/818.pdf
000011485 980__ $$aARTICLE