000011297 001__ 11297
000011297 037__ $$a1422
000011297 041__ $$aEnglish
000011297 100__ $$aHarris, C.
000011297 100__ $$aAndrade, J. d.
000011297 100__ $$aRoe, D.
000011297 245__ $$aAddressing poverty issues in tourism standards: A review of experience
000011297 260__ $$c2003
000011297 260__ $$b
000011297 490__ $$aResearch paper
000011297 507__ $$aMFOLL
000011297 520__ $$aThe combined forces of industrial globalisation and increased consumer demand for ?sustainably? produced and traded products have resulted in an explosion of voluntary initiatives to demonstrate corporate ?responsibility?. In the last ten years there has been unprecedented growth in the development of environmental and social standards for a number of different industrial sectors. In particular, certification of environmental and social performance is becoming increasingly common in a number of sectors. Certification is now commonplace in forestry and agriculture (particularly with increasing concerns over food production methods and enhanced demand for organic products) but is also emerging in a number of other sectors, including tourism. Within the tourism industry (but not confined to this sector) the majority of standards have focussed on environmental issues, reflecting post- Rio thinking on sustainable development ? although Font and Bendell (2002) note that in developing countries the coverage of social and economic issues is broader. The 7th meeting of the UN Commission for Sustainable Development in 1999 was the first time that poverty issues were specifically highlighted at the international level in relation to tourism development. This paper reviews the extent to which poverty reduction has been addressed in a number of different tourism standards.
The remainder of this section describes what a standard is and the different types that exist. Section 2 reviews the different types of tourism standard. Section 3 examines the extent to which poverty issues have been incorporated into a number of recent standards. This part of the paper is based on an analysis of a selection of different tourism principles and codes conducted for ODI in 2002 (De Andrade 2002) and on interviews with managers of a selection of tourism certification schemes in developing countries. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of standards and the potential barriers they present to developing country producers.
000011297 653__ $$adevelopment
000011297 653__ $$aenvironment
000011297 653__ $$apoverty
000011297 653__ $$asustainable
000011297 653__ $$atourism
000011297 650__ $$aMountain livelihoods
000011297 650__ $$aMountain tourism
000011297 650__ $$aMountain poverty and food security
000011297 650__ $$aMountain people/cultures
000011297 650__ $$aPolicies and governance
000011297 691__ $$aMountain livelihoods
000011297 691__ $$aMountain tourism
000011297 691__ $$aMountain poverty and food security
000011297 691__ $$aMountain people/cultures
000011297 691__ $$aPolicies and governance
000011297 773__ $$pPro Poor Tourism PPT Working Paper No. 14 http://www.propoortourism.org.uk/
000011297 8564_ $$uhttp://lib.icimod.org/record/11297/files/1422.pdf
000011297 980__ $$aARTICLE