000010775 001__ 10775
000010775 037__ $$a936
000010775 041__ $$aEnglish
000010775 100__ $$aThapa, G. B.
000010775 245__ $$aChanging approaches to mountain watersheds management in mainland south and south-east Asia
000010775 260__ $$c2001
000010775 260__ $$b
000010775 490__ $$aArticle
000010775 507__ $$aMFOLL
000010775 520__ $$aMountain watersheds, comprising a substantial proportion of national territories of countries in mainland South and Southeast Asia, are biophysical and socioeconomic entities, regulating the hydrological cycle, sequestrating carbon dioxide, and providing natural resources for the benefit of people living in and outside the watersheds. A review of the literature reveals that watersheds are undergoing degradation at varying rates caused by a myriad of factors ranging from national policies to farmers? socioeconomic conditions. Many agencies ? governmental and private ? have tried to address the problem in selected watersheds. Against the backdrop of the many causes of degradation, this study examines the evolving approaches to watershed management and development.  Until the early 1990s, watershed management planning and implementation followed a highly centralized approach focused on heavily subsidized structural measures of soil conservation, planned and implemented without any consultation with the mainstream development agencies and local people. Watershed management was either the sole responsibility of specially created line agencies or a project authority established by external donors. As a consequence, the initiatives could not be continued or contribute to effective conservation of watersheds. Cognizant of this, emphasis has been laid on integrated, participatory approaches since the early 1990s.  Based on an evaluation of experiences in mainland South and Southeast Asia, this study finds not much change in the way that management plans are being prepared and executed. The emergence of a multitude of independent watershed management agencies, with their own organizational structures and objectives and planning and implementation systems has resulted in watershed management endeavors that have been in complete disarray. Consistent with the principle of sustainable development, a real integrated, participatory approach requires area-specific conservation programs that are well incorporated into integrated socioeconomic development plans prepared and implemented by local line agencies in cooperation with nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and concerned people.
000010775 653__ $$aconservation
000010775 653__ $$anon-government organisations (NGO)
000010775 653__ $$aparticipation
000010775 653__ $$awater
000010775 653__ $$awatershed management
000010775 653__ $$awatersheds
000010775 650__ $$aNatural resource management
000010775 650__ $$aWater management
000010775 650__ $$aWatershed management
000010775 650__ $$aConservation
000010775 691__ $$aNatural resource management
000010775 691__ $$aWater management
000010775 691__ $$aWatershed management
000010775 691__ $$aConservation
000010775 773__ $$pEnvironmental Management Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 667?679
000010775 8564_ $$uhttp://lib.icimod.org/record/10775/files/936.pdf
000010775 980__ $$aARTICLE