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Vulnerability of Mountain Glaciers in China to Climate Change
Mountain glaciers in China are an important water source for both China and adjoining countries, and therefore their adaptation to glacier change is crucial in relation to maintaining populations
. This study aims to improve our understanding of glacial vulnerability to climate change to establish adaptation strategies. A glacial numerical model is developed using spatial principle component analysis (SPCA) supported by remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. The model contains nine factors—slope, aspect, hillshade, elevation a.s.l., air temperature, precipitation, glacial area change percentage, glacial type and glacial area, describing topography, climate, and glacier characteristics. The vulnerability of glaciers to climate change is evaluated during the period of 1961–2007 on a regional scale, and in the 2030s and 2050s based on projections of air temperature and precipitation changes under the IPCC RCP6.0 scenario and of glacier change in the 21st century. Glacial vulnerability is graded into five levels: potential, light, medial, heavy, and very heavy, using natural breaks classification (NBC). The spatial distribution of glacial vulnerability and its temporal changes in the 21st century for the RCP6.0 scenario are analyzed, and the factors influencing vulnerability are discussed. Results show that mountain glaciers in China are very vulnerable to climate change, and 41.2% of glacial areas fall into the levels of heavy and very heavy vulnerability in the period 1961–2007. This is mainly explained by topographical exposure and the high sensitivity of glaciers to climate change. Trends of glacial vulnerability are projected to decline in the 2030s and 2050s, but a declining trend is still high in some regions. In addition to topographical factors, variation in precipitation in the 2030s and 2050s is found to be crucial
Reducing Risk through Early Warning
Shrestha, M. S.
Pradhan, N. S.
In the Hindu Kush Himalayas every year heavy monsoon rains result in severe flooding, threatening lives and livelihoods
. Grants from donors have made it possible to implement regional and community-level flood information systems that use recent advances in monitoring and communication technologies. Investing in such modern forecasting schemes has helped reduce flood risks and damage
Adaptation Options to Improve Food Security in a Changing Climate in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region
Nischalke, S. M.
This paper analyzes the food security situation in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region (availability, access, utilization, and stability) and new challenges, emerging from climate and socioeconomic change
. It addresses the challenge, particularly for policy makers, which of the various adaptations presented by science to choose and implement. All dimensions of food security will be affected by climate change impacts. Currently many different autonomous and planned adaptations are happening independently in the region and are not assessed or supported in a coordinated way. Prioritization is needed to effectively prepare the farm and food systems for changes to come. The list of identified priorities contains, first, planned adaptations for short-term improvements in disaster preparedness (early warning systems, natural protection, and insurance schemes) and, second, adaptations that with a long-term perspective test and upscale options for local water storage and maintenance. The third priority is diversification of agriculture with a focus on localized climate- and nutrition-sensitive farming (crop diversity and climate-resistant crops with good nutritional performance). The fourth priority is to enable rainwater harvesting on household level through dissemination of knowledge on simple technologies and quality management. The fifth priority is to enable autonomous adaptation in the form of making better use of remittances and nonagricultural income sources to increase livelihood securit
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